Manifesto of the Communist Party



‍‍In Marx Engels, the first two sections simply describe basic idea about the bourgeois and proletarians. According to the interpretation that is given by the editor, there are three major ideas for them. Firstly, the bourgeois and proletarians are based on European history (feudal) and the original tradition of the form of these two classes has been passed through the evolution. Also, the proletarians have been the majority of the society, and their survival is mostly depends on the demand from the bourgeois that are only the minor that successful overcome their own weakness to strength themselves. Last but not least, by standing in the communists’ position, it infers that the communists’ roles in historical process have been undefined due to the lack of the inevitable force which the bourgeois has been contributed to the society. Thus, the existence of communists Manifesto has been doubted.‍‍

Communism is a political way of thinking and an idea of how society should work and be organized. Communism is a kind of socialism that says that there should not be social classes or states. Communism says that the people of any and every place in the world should all own the tools, factories, and farms that are used to produce goods and food. This social process is known as common ownership. In a communist society, there is no private property.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Background)

Marx 1875
Karl Heinrich Marx was a German Philosopher, economist, and revolutionary socialist living from May 1818 to March 1883. Many of his works have been of great use in shaping the modern world. Marx wrote many books, but his two most well known works are The Communist Manifesto and Capital: Critique of Political Economy. Marx also wrote for many radical newspapers before creating his own. For his troubles he was exiled twice from Cologne first to Brussels where he became a leader in the Communist League then to London with his family where Marx stayed until his death.

Engels.jpgFriedrich Engels was a German-English industrialist, social scientist, philosopher and created the Marxist theory with Karl Marx. He published many other books as well, with the main ideas targeting communism and its levels of society. He travelled to Paris to meet up with Karl Marx, lived in Brusell for a couple of years and due to the event of the Revolution of France brough Marx and Engels back to Prussa. His many major works include ‍The Holy Family, The Condition of Working Class in England, and Socialism: Utopian and Scientific.


This image illustrates the conflict between how Bourgeois versus Proletarians.

The image demonstrates that rich (bourgeoisie) is always have the power over the poor ( Proletarians).
Marx and Engels tried to make people understand that this capitalist system is not profitable for everyone, but only for those few at the top of the pyramid who enjoy immense riches.

Document and Its Sections

I. Bourgeois and Proletarians

In chapter 1 of The Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels argue that society is moving away from the complex multilayer class systems of feudal times, and increasingly moving toward a two-class system, and that in this new system, these two classes directly antagonize each other. Capitalism they assert, is the driving force behind this shift. These two classes are subsequently defined as the bourgeoisie, or rich, being able to effect production; And the proletariat, or the working class, being affected by the bourgeoisie in it's quest for more money and land, by way of "free trade".

This image illustrates Karl Marx's views of society and how it should be improved.
This image illustrates Karl Marx's views of society and how it should be improved.

II. Proletarians and Communists

In this chapter, Marx and Engels describe what is necessary for the transition from socialism to communism. The Communists would guide the proletariat in different countries with similar guidelines towards communism. Both the proletarians and the Communists primary goal was to overthrow the bourgeoisie supremacy and make the working proletariat into a class with political power. Marx and Engels also argue that if the proletarians were to overthrow the bourgeoisie than it would only shift the power dynamic to where they are of greater social class. This idea does not support the goal of communism which is to make everyone of equal social status.

"In bourgeois society, therefore, the past dominates the present; in Communist society, the present dominates the past."

III. Socialist and Communist Literature

1. Reactionary Socialism

There are three types of socialism which Marx and Engels outline; Feudal Socialism, Petty-Bourgeois Socialism, and German or "True" Socialism. They examine the successes and flaws of each one:

A. Feudal Socialism

B. Petty-Bourgeois Socialism

C. German or "True" Socialism

2. Conservative or Bourgeois Socialism

3. Critical Utopian Socialism or Communism

IV. Position of the Communist in Relation to the Various Existing Opposition Parties

After reviewing the political temperatures in Europe (Switzerland, France, Poland, Germany), Marx and Engels conclude that "In short, the Communists everywhere support every revolutionary movement against the existing social and political order of things".

Marxist Terminology

  • Means of Production: refers to physical, non-human inputs used in production—the factories, machines, and tools used to produce wealth
  • Bourgeoisie: Middle social class
  • Proletariat: Lower social class

Quotes/Views of the Manifesto Regarding "Technology"

Capitalist production, therefore, develops technology, and the combining together of various processes into a social whole, only by sapping the original sources of all wealth -- the soil and the labourer.

"The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society."

Editions/Published Versions of The Manifesto of the Communist Party

1. The Marx/Engels Reader. Ed., R. Tucker.
  • Editor's biography - ‍Robert Tucker is not only the scientist but also the historian who is born in Missouri in United States. With the PHD degree from the Harvard University, he had been working on the issues that are connected between the political science and the Russian culture. Tucker organized the seven stages for the soviet union political history; War Communism from 1917 to 1921, New Economic Policy from 1921 to 1928, Revolution Above from 1928 to 1937, Neo-Tsarist Autocracy from 1937 to 1953, Thawfrom 1953 to 1964, Stagnation from 1964 to 1985, and Perestroika from 1985 to 1991. His idea about the political idea is heavily influenced by the earliest and mature Karl Marx, meanwhile, with the experiences of living in Stalin’s Soviet Union for nine years. Thus, he was able to analyze the similarities and differences between the realities and ideals of Soviet totalitarianism.‍

External web-link

Full Text of The Communist Manifesto.
Robert Charles Tucker
Karl Marx
Marxian Economics